Whether a test is open-book or closed-book, the items (or questions) selected for the test dictate the types of learning that are being assessed. Each type of item on a test has implications for making scoring and grading useful to assessment. For example, items that ask students to do open-ended problem-solving would be designed and scored like many problem sets, while an item that asks for an essay response to a question about the ethical issues involved in an engineering decision would be designed and scored like a writing assignment.
Walvoord, B. E. & Anderson, V. J. (1998). Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.